Christian Ethics: The Lord’s Covenant With His People (Exodus 23-24)

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The Lord's Covenant with His People

Exodus 23-24

Rev Chris Chua

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Sermon Outline

God's Covenant With The People of Israel

Exodus 24:1-18

  1. God’s covenant with His people

God called Moses to tell the people of Israel 

Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine (Ex 19:5)

God’s previous covenant with their forefathers

    • God heard their groaning, and he remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac and with Jacob. (Ex.2:24)
    • Abraham’s descendants would inherit the land (Gen.15:18-21)
    • Abraham would be father of many nations (Gen.17:4)
    • War between Israel and Hamas in Gaza over the land, and the people who occupied the land
    • God’s promise to Israel
    • God’s covenant with Israel, “if you obey me fully and keep my covenant”
    • Pray for God’s justice, mercy, intervention, and peaceful settlement.
  • The people’s response to all the words of the Lord

    • We will do everything the Lord has said. (Ex 19:8)

    • the people saw the Lord descended on the mountain (Ex.19:16-19).

    • the people trembled. 

    • the people heard the 10 commandments. 
    • the people asked Moses to be their mediator.

“Speak to us yourself and we will listen. But do not
have God speak to us or we will die.” (Ex. 19:19)

    • Some saw visions of angels, shining light or signs and wonders, and they praise God.
    • Few saw visions made them tremble with fear.
    • Our God is a consuming fire.
    • We can come to him with Jesus as our Mediator, greater than Moses
    • Moses went up the mountain 6 times to see God
    • Our Lord Jesus is the Son of God

2. The ratification of God’s covenant (Ex.24:1-11)

a. Introduction (Ex. 24:1-2)

    • God called Moses to the mountain, and
    • Aaron, who will be serving the Lord as a priest, and his 2 sons
    • seventy elders, who will judge the people’s disputes,
    • Only Moses alone should approach God as the mediator.

b. The ratification of God’s Covenant (Ex.24:3-8)

    • Moses told the people all the Lord’s words and laws (Ex.24:3). The “words” – the 10 Commandments.
    • The “laws” or “rules” (ESV) – the Book of the Covenant (Ex. 24:7). It applies to Ex.20:22-23:33
    • to deal with personal injuries, to protect personal properties, to encourage social responsibilities, and to govern religious observation.
    • Dealing with personal injuries

      18 “If people quarrel and one person hits another with a stone or with their fist and the victim does not die but is confined to bed, 19 the one who struck the blow will not be held liable if the other can get up and walk around outside with a staff; however, the guilty party must pay
      the injured person for any loss of time and see that the victim is completely healed. (Ex.21:18-19)

    • The people responded

      “Everything the LORD has said we will do.” (Ex. 24:3)

c.   The signing of the covenant (Ex.24: 4-8)

    • Moses built an altar and set up 12 stone pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel.
    • The people offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offering
    • Moses took half the blood, splashed against the altar.
    • Read the Book of the Covenant and people responded, “We will obey.”
    • Moses sprinkled half the blood on the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.” (Ex.24:6-8)

      Jesus’s words to his disciples after giving thanks for the wine,

      This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins (Mt.26:28)

      Jesus’ death of the cross for the forgiveness of sins for those who believe in Him.

      At the Lord’s Supper we first confess our sins, not to do them again, and thank God for the forgiveness of our sins.

d.  Ratification of the Covenant concludes (Ex.24: 9-11)

    • Moses and the leaders went up the mountain.
    • Saw the vision of God and He did not kill them.
    • For no-one can see God and live. (Ex. 33:20).
    • God has a special relationship with them because of the covenant. The leaders ate and drank joyfully in the presence of God.

3.   The Tables of Stone – Ex.24:12-18

The Lord said to Moses,

“Come up to me on the mountain and stay here, and I will give you the tablets of stone with the law and commandments I have written for their instruction.” (Ex.24:12)

Which is the greatest commandment of all?

Jesus replied,

30 Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.’31 The second is this: ‘Love your neighbour as yourself.’ – Mark 12:30-31


What can we learn from God’s covenant with His people?

  • God loved His chosen people, His treasured possession.
  • He bonded Himself with them in a covenant.
  • He remembered them in times of their needs.
  • He called Moses to be His Mediator.
  • His people were to keep the covenant by obeying His words.
  • God loved us and sent His Son Jesus Christ to die for us.
  • By his blood we have a new covenant through faith in Jesus Christ.
  • We have become God’s chosen people and children of God.
  • Our inheritance is not on earth but in heaven.
  • Jesus is out Mediator. (1 Tim. 2:5)
  • We obey God’s law, “carved” in our hearts by the Holy Spirit.
  • We are to love God and love our neighbours.
  • We have been empowered by the Holy Spirit to keep His words.
  • By faith we hope for the final salvation when Christ returns in glory.


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Next Week: 5 November 2023

The Tabernacle And Priesthood - The Lord Dwells Among His People

Exodus 25:27; 28-29

Rev Chris Chua


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